TCP/IP Model

OSI

Open Systems Interconnect Stack

 

TCP/IP

TCP/IP Stack

 

Application

Application Layer

Handles interaction between the user and the application. TLS/SSL encryption is also handled at this layer.

Protocols at this level:

  • SMTP
  • FTP
  • DNS
  • HTTP
  • POP
  • HTTP
  • SSH
  • NTP

What software/hardware operate at this layer?

Web browsers, such as chrome, operate at the application layer.

Transport

Transport Layer

This layer is responsible for end-to-end error free transmission of data.

Protocols at this level:

  • SCTP
  • TCP
  • UDP

 

What software/hardware operate at this layer?

Gateways (not covered in the CIE A Level)

 

Internet

Internet Layer

Responsible for delivering packets from host to destination using IP addresses.

 

Protocols

  • IP
  • ARP
  • RARP
  • ICMP
  • IGM

What software/hardware operate at this layer?

Routers function at this layer

Network Link

Network Link Layer

This layer utilizes hardware addresses and is responsible for the physical transfer of data from node to node.

What software/hardware operate at this layer?

Hubs, Switches & Bridges operate at this layer

TCP vs UDP

TCP vs UDP

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Resources