Artificial Intelligence is the ability for computers perform tasks that usually only a human would be able to do, such as decision making, speech recognition, etc. Work on artificial intelligence began in the 1950s and included algorithms such as Dijkstra’s shortest path, A* algorithm.
Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence where computers learn to perform tasks without explicitly being programmed how to. E.g. Email Spam filters. With machine learning computers are fed historical training data and this data is used to produce a model from which predictions about previous unseen data can be made.
Two common applications of machine learning are classification and regression.
Deep learning is a subset of ML where computers learn to solve problems using neural networks similar to how the human brain functions. E.g. Image Classification.
Deep learning is used for a number of different purposes including clustering and reinforcement learning.